Assessment of U.S. activities to combat trafficking in persons
Call Number: HQ281 .A77 2003
Publication Date: August 2003
Trafficking in persons is a heinous international crime and human rights abuse. The global magnitude is staggering. According to a 2003 U.S. Government estimate, 800,000 to 900,000 people are trafficked across international borders each year having been bought, sold, transported and held in slavery-like conditions for sex and labor exploitation. The U.S. Government estimates that 18,000 to 20,000 people are trafficked annually into the United States. The nature of this crime -- underground, often under-acknowledged -- contributes to the inability to determine the precise number of people who are victimized by traffickers each year. The scope of this hideous exploitation is wide and varied, but typically involves victims entrapped into commercial sexual exploitation such as prostitution and pornography, or labor exploitation in sweatshops, construction sites and agricultural settings. Additional forms of forced labor and abuse include domestic servitude and forced marriages.
Borderline Slavery : Mexico, United States, and the Human Trade
Call Number: HQ281 .B67 2012
Publication Date: 2012-10-25
Discussing the multinational networks, global economics, and personal motives that fuel a multibillion dollar trade in human beings as cheap labour, Borderline Slavery suggests future directions for effective policies and law enforcement strategies to prevent the advance of trafficking. As such, it is of interest to both policy makers and scholars across the social sciences working in the fields of migration, exploitation and trafficking.
Child Exploitation and Trafficking
Call Number: KF9449 .K46 2012
Publication Date: 2011-12-16
Each year, more than two million children around the world fall victim to commercial sexual exploitation. The numbers of children sexually abused for non-commercial purposes are even higher. Put simply, the growing, increasingly-organized epidemic of child exploitation demands a coordinated response.The aim of this book is to bring some fresh thinking to this complicated area of the law, and to help erase some of its counterproductive mythology. The book provides the first comprehensive, practical introduction to the history and present-day reality of child sexual exploitation, as well as to the interconnected web of domestic and transnational federal laws and law enforcement efforts launched in response thereto. It is written from the distinctive perspective of those who have spent their careers in the trenches investigating, prosecuting, and adjudicating these intricate and commonly emotional cases. Relying on real-world examples, the authors offer proscriptive and descriptive practical advice and reform proposals aimed at those involved at all levels in this difficult area. Serving as a "first-line" resource for clear, practical thinking on the range of complex, and often misunderstood, investigative, prosecutorial, and rehabilitative issues surrounding child exploitation cases, this work is a must-have for anyone with interest in the protection of children from sexual exploitation and trafficking.
Combating Human Trafficking : gaps in policy and law
Call Number: HQ281 .M57 2015
Publication Date: 2015-07-22
This book demystifies the term "trafficking" with a view to properly understand its trends, dimensions, and gaps in policy and law that need to be plugged. Combating Human Trafficking aims to initiate fresh discussion on human trafficking, and offers recommendations to curb organized international crime. It explores varied dimensions of the crime and offers further classification to help effectively address the problem. It presents a new perspective of identifying assimilative interaction between social and criminal justice systems, the progressive growth in socio-criminal legislations, and the universal demand of multi-agency approach to combat trafficking. Through the Brute Mute theory, it gives an illustrative description of micro- and macro-governance, and offers a global perspective to the problem with examples and case studies.
Combating Human Trafficking in China
Call Number: JV6201 .U55 2006
Publication Date: 2006-01-01
Hearing before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, One Hundred Ninth Congress, second session, March 6, 2006
Combating Trafficking In Human Beings
Call Number: HQ281 .C66 2011
Publication Date: 2011-01-01
Combating trafficking in human beings (THB) for labor exploitation requires additional skills, knowledge, and awareness for effective investigation and prosecution, and for the identification and assistance of victims of this form of THB. Actors other than the police and the prosecution services (such as labor inspectorates, social investigation services, and municipalities) have also become involved in these activities. It is unclear which role these actors can have in identifying victims and in investigating and prosecuting (cross-border) THB for labor exploitation and which improvements are needed. They are often unfamiliar with, for instance, the specific needs of victims, how trafficking networks operate, and how to cooperate with colleagues abroad. These problems obviously hamper the combating of THB for labor exploitation. In addition, difficulties in defining THB for labor exploitation still exist. Labor exploitation, as such, is not a term used in the Palermo Protocol or the EU Directive on Preventing and Combating THB and Protecting Victims. One can say that labor exploitation includes, at least, forced and compulsory labor and services, slavery, and slavery-like practices, although this does not solve the problems encountered in defining the crime. In this book, these and other problems, as well as the challenges of dealing with these problems, are identified. It includes research in five countries (Austria, The Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, and Spain), research on the EU legal framework, an analysis of the country studies, as well as four articles reflecting on these problems.
Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States
Call Number: KF9323 .I578 2013
Publication Date: 2013-11-26
Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. Despite the serious and long-term consequences for victims as well as their families, communities, and society, efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to these crimes are largely under supported, inefficient, uncoordinated, and unevaluated. The IOM and National Research Council studied these crimes as they affect U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States under age 18. The IOM/NRC report offers recommendations concerning strategies for responding to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, new legislative approaches, and a research agenda. The report concludes that efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States require better collaborative approaches. These efforts need to confront demand and the individuals who commit and benefit from these crimes. The recommendations in the report have the potential to advance and strengthen the nation's emerging efforts to prevent, identify, and respond to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors.
Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States : A Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services
Call Number: KF9323 .I5785 2014
Publication Date: 2014-07-04
Every day in the United States, children and adolescents are victims of commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking. These are not only illegal activities, but also forms of violence and abuse that result in immediate and long-term physical, mental, and emotional harm to victims and survivors. In 2013, the Institute of Medicine/National Research Council released the report Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States. The report found that the United States is in the very early stages of recognizing, understanding, and developing solutions for these crimes. Victim and support service professionals need to be able to recognize past, ongoing, or potential victimization by commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking among the youth in their care. Failure to do so increases the possibility that those at risk may become victims, and victims may miss opportunities for assistance and remain vulnerable to further exploitation and abuse. This Guide for Providers of Victim and Support Services provides a summary of information from the original report that is most relevant to individuals and organizations that provide and support services for children and adolescents, including, policy markers, leaders, and practitioners, organizations and programs at the local, state, and federal levels, child welfare and child protective services, nongovernmental organizations. This guide includes definitions of key terms and an overview of risk factors and consequences; emerging strategies for preventing and responding to these crimes; key challenges to service provision; and recommendations aimed at identifying, preventing, and responding to these crimes.
The Control of People Smuggling and Trafficking in the EU
Call Number: KJE8781.H86 V46 2010
Publication Date: 2010-09-28
This book examines the smuggling of migrants and trafficking of human beings in the EU with a comparative analysis of how British and Italian law has approached the issues. It will be a valuable resource for academics and students working in the areas of migration, refugee, criminal justice and EU law as well as policy-makers and practitioners working with refugee and immigration issues.
Critical Perspectives on Child Sexual Exploitation and Related Trafficking
Call Number: HV6570.4.G7 C75 2013
Publication Date: 2013-09-06
This collection is the first major exploration of the issues related to young people who are affected by child sexual exploitation (CSE) and child trafficking for exploitation. These include consideration of the language we currently use to construct and understand CSE; how to conceptualise CSE and sexual violence that takes place in gangs or between peers; issues of how 'consent' relates to young people in abusive or exploitative sexual relationships; how young people themselves might participate in work to improve service delivery; why some looked after young people are at greater risk of CSE than others and how they might keep safe. The volume also reviews policy and practice developments in Scotland; the risk of CSE for young women who go missing to escape forced marriages; the importance of including young people at risk of CSE in decision-making about their care; how and why trafficking and CSE came to be defined as objects of international policy concern and how community organizations might be mobilized to protect young people from the risk of trafficking for CSE. nbsp; This volume is essential reading for academics, students, practitioners and policymakers in the fields of social work and social policy, child protection and youth work, criminology and sociology and the health care services.
Defining Human Trafficking and Identifying Its Victims
Call Number: K5297 .R68 2012
Publication Date: 2011-12-09
Trafficking in human beings has become a major international concern in the last two decades. Trafficking has been subjected to intense political debate and ambitious legal regulation on international, regional and national levels. Although much has been done to eradicate trafficking and to protect the victims, an increasing number of critical voices are emerging: the efforts to deal with human trafficking have proved to be more ineffective than anticipated. This book seeks explanations to why anti-trafficking strategies and activities appear to be so futile, and what should be done better for them to achieve their goals with more success. Besides the academic audience, this study is written for legal practitioners, who might come across human trafficking in their work.
Due Diligence and Its Application to Protect Women from Violence
Call Number: K3243 .D84 2008
Publication Date: 2008-10-02
"Under international human rights law, states are required to exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate, punish and provide redress for acts of violence against women. Accordingly, the due diligence standard presents a way to measure whether a state has fulfilled its obligations to prevent and respond to violence against women. Despite its growing popularity as a tool for promoting greater state accountability for violence against women by non-state actors, the content and scope of due diligence obligations remain vague. Against the backdrop of contemporary issues that pose threats to women's rights, the contributors to this volume examine how the due diligence standard and other strategies can be applied as useful mechanisms to combat violence against women in various cultures worldwide."--BOOK JACKET.
The evaluation of European criminal law : the example of the Framework Decision on combating trafficking in human beings
Call Number: KJE8781.H86 E93 2009
Publication Date: 2009
The role of evaluation has become increasingly important in the context of EU policies in the field of judicial cooperation in criminal matters. This evolution is the result of an increasing number of legally binding instruments adopted in the framework of the third pillar of the European Union and of their growing impact on national legal systems. Evaluation represents an essential tool to appreciate the legislative and practical implementation of existing European criminal law and to assess and measure in greater detail the effects and impact of EU legislation. Therefore, it plays a significant role in the establishment and strengthening of mutual trust in the EU area of freedom, security and justice. This book aims at developing a methodology for the assessment of the implementation and impact of European criminal law.
Flesh and Money : trafficking in human beings
Call Number: HQ281 .F54 2011
Publication Date: 2011-05-01
Cross-border mobility of people in Europe continues to worry the authorities, particularly when this leads to illegality and the exploitation of people, whether in the sex service, construction industry or agriculture. Much of the mobility concerns human trafficking, often women smuggled over the borders for exploitation in the sex industry. However, not all sex workers are dragged into the sex service industry against their will. Even if it is only an economic option of last resort, for many women it is a real (temporary) job for which they are prepared to be smuggled under dangerous condition. This can even imply being smuggled by Bedouins on a camel through the desert into Israel. Other girls get in the grip of Bulgarian organised crime syndicates which stretch their control over their European sex lines from the streets in Sofia to top brothels for elite prostitutes in Berlin and London. This volume contains the reports and studies of expert European researchers in the field of human trafficking. It covers a decade of trafficking and law enforcement in which the effects of globalisation are still being felt by those who are forced into debasing working conditions or roam around in the European continent looking for a better existence.
Freedom for All : an attorney's guide to fighting human trafficking
Call Number: KF9449 .H955 2015
Publication Date: 2016-02-07
Human trafficking is the reprehensible practice of physically or psychologically compelling an individual to work or provide commercial sexual services. An estimated 21-30 million people are currently enslaved worldwide, with fewer than one percent of these individuals ever identified. Attorneys have the much-needed skills, clientele, and positions to help shrink this alarming gap, by integrating identification, services and prevention strategies into their respective practices. Freedom for All demonstrates to attorneys across multiple practice areas how human trafficking intersects with their daily practice, how their skills translate, and how they can easily begin to integrate anti-trafficking into their work. It is as much a practical introduction to any student or practicing attorney as it is a lay of the land of current anti-trafficking legal efforts. The book also highlights the important contributions of numerous attorneys and exciting nascent developments. Whether criminal, corporate, employment, immigration, international or public interest, now is the moment to develop areas of the law, employ creative arguments and thinking, and implement new policies and programs. Efforts at all levels are sorely needed to increase identification, services and prevention - to make a true difference in the lives of trafficked persons. If you have ever asked yourself "What can I do?" Freedom for All gives you the answer.
From Human Trafficking to Human Rights
Call Number: HT867 .F676 2012
Publication Date: 2011-11-16
Over the last decade, public, political, and scholarly attention has focused on human trafficking and contemporary forms of slavery. Yet as human rights scholars Alison Brysk and Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick argue, most current work tends to be more descriptive and focused on trafficking for sexual exploitation. In From Human Trafficking to Human Rights, Brysk, Choi-Fitzpatrick, and a cast of experts demonstrate that it is time to recognize human trafficking as more a matter of human rights and social justice, rooted in larger structural issues relating to the global economy, human security, U.S. foreign policy, and labor and gender relations. Such reframing involves overcoming several of the most difficult barriers to the development of human rights discourse: women's rights as human rights, labor rights as a confluence of structure and agency, the interdependence of migration and discrimination, the ideological and policy hegemony of the United States in setting the terms of debate, and a politics of global justice and governance. Throughout this volume, the argument is clear: a deep human rights approach can improve analysis and response by recovering human rights principles that match protection with empowerment and recognize the interdependence of social rights and personal freedoms. Together, contributors to the volume conclude that rethinking trafficking requires moving our orientation from sex to slavery, from prostitution to power relations, and from rescue to rights. On the basis of this argument, From Human Trafficking to Human Rights offers concrete policy approaches to improve the global response necessary to end slavery responsibly.
Girls Like Us : fighting for a world where girls are not for sale, an activist finds her calling and heals herself
Call Number: HQ281 .L57 2011
Publication Date: 2011-04-05
A deeply moving story by a survivor of the commercial sex industry who has devoted her career to activism and helping other young girls escape "the life" At thirteen, Rachel Lloyd found herself caught up in a world of pain and abuse, struggling to survive as a child with no responsible adults to support her. Vulnerable yet tough, she eventually ended up a victim of commercial sexual exploitation. It took time and incredible resilience, but ?nally, with the help of a local church community, she broke free of her pimp and her past. Three years later, Lloyd arrived in the United States to work with adult women in the sex industry and soon founded her own nonprofit--GEMS, Girls Educational and Mentoring Services--to meet the needs of other girls with her history. She also earned her GED and won full scholarships to college and a graduate program. Today Lloyd is executive director of GEMS in New York City and has turned it into one of the nations most groundbreaking nonprofit organizations. In Girls Like Us, Lloyd reveals the dark, secretive world of her past in stunning cinematic detail. And, with great humanity, she lovingly shares the stories of the girls whose lives she has helped--small victories that have healed her wounds and made her whole. Revelatory, authentic, and brave, Girls Like Us is an unforgettable memoir.
God in a Brothel
Call Number: HQ281 .W34 2011
Publication Date: 2011-07-29
This is the true story of an undercover investigator's experiences infiltrating the multi-billion-dollar global sex industry. It is a story of triumph for the children and young teens released from a life of slavery and the rescuer who freed many hundreds of victims leading to the prosecution of dozens of perpetrators. And it is a story of haunting despair for those left behind in corrupt systems of law enforcement. It is the personal story of Daniel Walker, one man who followed a path of costly discipleship, agonizing failure and unlikely redemption. And it is a challenge to God's people to join in the battle that all might be freed.The Anti-Trafficking Tour featuring Daniel Walker is coming to a city near you in October 2011! Visit www.ivpress.com/antitraffickingtour for tour schedule and more information.
Human Traffic : sex, slaves and immigration
Call Number: JV6201 .M34 2003
Publication Date: 2004-04-01
A controversial investigation into the shady world of people smuggling, which examines the scope of this illegal trade around the world.;Trafficking. Once the word suggested drugs but in the 21st century organised crime has found an even more lucrative market to traffic in - people. Desperate migrants risk their lives and their life savings to be smuggled to the West. But once they arrive, their troubles have often only just begun. The criminals who have transported them may hold them hostage, in the hope of extorting even more money from their helpless relatives back home. Because they are illegal theyay be forced to work for a pittance in harsh conditions. For many, their dream of a new, better life soon crumbles into a reality of prostitution and exploitation. Many become nothing more than modern-day slaves. Who are the players in this international market in human flesh? How did they rise to power? And what are governments doing to stop them?
Human Traffic and Transnational Crime
Call Number: HQ281 .H86 2005
Publication Date: 2004-11-03
Human trafficking is a growing transnational criminal phenomenon conservative estimates put the total number of persons trafficked annually at two million. In this first in-depth study of human trafficking in Russia and Ukraine, scholars from the European, Siberian, and far-eastern parts of Russia offer groundbreaking analyses of the motivations behind and reactions to this horrifying trend.
Human traffic, human rights: redefining victim protection
Call Number: JV6271 .P43 2002
Publication Date: 2002
The aims of this research were to identify the obstacles to convictions and prosecutions of traffickers; to assess victim and witness protection measures used in trafficking cases; and to evaluate whether such victim and witness protection measures have the desired effect of encouraging prosecutions and securing convictions of traffickers. The research covers ten countries, combining countries of origin, transit and destination: Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, Thailand and United States were selected on the basis of having established laws and policies of victim protection for trafficked persons; Colombia, Poland, Ukraine and United Kingdom were selected for recent attempts to prosecute traffickers under various laws; and Nigeria was selected because a large number of Nigerian women are trafficked for prostitution to three other countries being studied. This research was a qualitative study, based on information provided during in-depth interviews in each of the countries. The research used specific case studies in each country to highlight good and bad practices related to protecting rights of trafficked persons and prosecution of traffickers. An analysis of various written sources such as the legislation, policies, government and NGO reports was also undertaken. The research has found that there is a growing awareness of the need for a human rights framework to combat trafficking. It identifies successful cases of 'best practice' in which committed teams of law enforcement officials, prosecutors, lawyers and service providers have displayed sensitivity to the needs and rights of trafficked persons. The report makes extensive recommendations to states, government agencies, lawyers and law enforcement agencies regarding ten specific thematic areas.
Call Number: K5297 .H86 2012
Publication Date: 2011-12-05
Human trafficking is a crime that undermines fundamental human rights and a broader sense of global order. It is an atrocity that transcends borders--with some regions known as exporters of trafficking victims and others recognized as destination countries. Edited by three global experts and composed of the work of an esteemed panel of contributors, Human Trafficking: Exploring the International Nature, Concerns, and Complexities examines techniques used to protect and support victims of trafficking as well as strategies for prosecution of offenders. Topics discussed include: How data on human trafficking should be collected and analyzed, and how data collection can be improved through proper contextualization The importance of harmonization and consistency in legal definitions and interpretations within and among regions The need for increased exchange of information and cooperation between the various actors involved in combating human trafficking, including investigators, law enforcement and criminal justice professionals, and social workers Problems with victim identification, as well as erroneous assumptions of the scope of victimization Controversy over linking protection measures with cooperation with authorities Highlighting the issues most addressed by contemporary scholars, researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, this volume also suggests areas ripe for further inquiry and investigation. Supplemented by discussion questions in each chapter, the book is sure to stimulate debate on a troubling phenomenon.
Call Number: KF9449 .P34 2016
Publication Date: 2016-03-01
Slavery has not been eradicated. Human Trafficking explores the legal, moral, and political attempts to contain sex and labor trafficking. The authors bring unique perspectives to these topics. Professor Page, an African-American woman all too familiar with the vestiges of slavery, has written and lectured internationally on trafficking. Professor Piatt, a Hispanic law professor and former law school dean, brings his international experience as an educator, author, and advocate regarding immigration and human rights matters to bear. The book considers efforts at containment, including controversial topics such as whether prostitution should be legalized. It concludes with specific approaches to eliminate trafficking.
Human Trafficking Around the World
Call Number: K5297 .H47 2013
Publication Date: 2013-06-04
This unprecedented study of sex trafficking, forced labor, organ trafficking, and sex tourism across twenty-four nations highlights the experiences of the victims, perpetrators, and anti-traffickers involved in this brutal trade. Combining statistical data with intimate accounts and interviews, journalist Stephanie Hepburn and justice scholar Rita J. Simon create a dynamic volume sure to educate and spur action. Hepburn and Simon recount the lives of victims during and after their experience with trafficking, and they follow the activities of traffickers before capture and their outcomes after sentencing. Each chapter centers on the trafficking practices and anti-trafficking measures of a single country: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Niger, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Syria, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Examining these nations' laws, Hepburn and Simon reveal gaps in legislation and enforcement and outline the cultural norms and biases, societal assumptions, and conflicting policies that make trafficking scenarios so pervasive and resilient. This study points out those most vulnerable in each nation and the specific cultural, economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors that contribute to each nation's trafficking issues. Furthermore, the study also highlights common phenomena that governments and international anti-traffickers should consider in their fight against this illicit trade.
The Human Trafficking Cycle: Sinai and Beyond
Call Number: HV6604.E3 R45 2014
Publication Date: 2014-06-29
Human trafficking in the Sinai started in 2009 and involves the abduction, extortion, sale, torture and killing of men, women and children. This book follows from the publication "Human Trafficking in the Sinai: Refugees between Life and Death" (2012). It describes how refugees are abducted and brought to the Sinai and identifies the modus operandi of the trafficking. It also looks at what happens after the hostages are released and where they go. This book introduces the term "trafficking cycle" to describe how refugees become trapped in a vicious cycle of detention, exploitation and abuse, or take risks that may lead to tragedies such as the shipwreck off the coast of Lampedusa on 3 October 2013. It also portrays how Sinai survivors remain owners of their own history and keepers of their own dignity. The book is based on interviews with hostages and survivors of the trafficking in the Sinai and others.
Human Trafficking in the Sinai
Call Number: JV8989 .R45 2012
Publication Date: 2012-12-01
This report describes the horrific situation of trafficking of refugees in the Sinai desert, a crisis that started in 2009. The refugees include men, women, children, and accompanying infants fleeing from already desperate circumstances in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan. An estimated 95% of the refugees in the Sinai (also referred to as hostages) are Eritreans. Smuggled across borders by middlemen, or kidnapped from refugee camps in Ethiopia and the Sudan, as well as their surrounding areas, and then captured or sold, the refugees are held hostage close to the Israeli border in inhumane conditions and tortured for ransoms of up to $50,000 USD. A large number of the refugees have died, either while being held hostage or after their release - often even after their ransom has been paid. A large number of refugees simply 'disappear' - killed while being held or shot.
Human trafficking law training for attorneys
Call Number: HQ281 .H863 2013
Publication Date: 2013
Human trafficking is modern-day slavery. Victims of human trafficking are subjected to force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of exploitation in commercial sex or forced labor. Learn about the federal and state human trafficking laws, and hear firsthand accounts of the experiences of two survivors.
Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union
Call Number: KJC6050 .G85 2006
Publication Date: 2006-05-29
This book provides a clear picture of the issues of legal and social legitimacy which surround criminal measures relating to trafficking in human beings in six Member States and the EU. It includes and explains the legal nature of the types of measures which have been adopted and the presentation of criminal sanctions and the positions taken by key actors in civil society.
The International Law of Human Trafficking
Call Number: K5258 .G35 2010
Publication Date: 2010-09-30
Although human trafficking has a long and ignoble history, it is only recently that trafficking has become a major political issue for states and the international community and the subject of detailed international rules. Anne T. Gallagher calls on her direct experience working within the United Nations to chart the development of new international laws on this issue. She links these rules to the international law of state responsibility as well as key norms of international human rights law, transnational criminal law, refugee law and international criminal law, in the process identifying and explaining the major legal obligations of states with respect to preventing trafficking, protecting and supporting victims, and prosecuting perpetrators. This book is a groundbreaking work: a unique and valuable resource for policymakers, advocates, practitioners and scholars working in this controversial and important field.
Lawyer's manual on human trafficking : pursuing justice for victims
Call Number: KF9449 .N49 2011
Publication Date: 2011
The Lawyer’s Manual on Human Trafficking, edited by Jill Lauri Goodman and Dorchen A. Leidholdt, makes an invaluable contribution to our understanding of human trafficking. It is an important guide for lawyers, judges, prosecutors, government agencies, service providers, community groups, and others concerned about this terrible human rights abuse.
Legal Responses to Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the European Union
Call Number: KJC8855 .A85 2007
Publication Date: 2007-03-01
The phenomenon of trafficking in women for sexual exploitation, which in the last decade has changed from a marginal 'non-issue' to a legitimate concern in many parts of the world, has become familiar through newspaper coverage. Now, finally, legislators and law enforcement agencies have begun to act. In Europe, many EU Member States now have, or are developing, at least some sort of anti-trafficking policies, with some of States in the forefront of global anti-trafficking efforts. Moreover, the EU itself has become markedly more active with regard to curbing trafficking in human beings as part of its migration control and police and judicial co-operation functions under the current Third Pillar. However, even coordinated efforts, such as those being worked on by the EU, tend to produce only short-term cures to a problem that is in truth global and structural in nature and which cannot be eradicated, or necessarily even significantly reduced, through policing and migration control measures alone. Too often there is little debate on broader measures which might be targeted to address the root causes of trafficking, such as poverty, under-development, general lack of economic and migration opportunities, and above all, gender inequality. Against this background, this book deals with present efforts to control trafficking in women for sexual exploitation. In doing so it examines claims that what is needed to effectively prevent and tackle trafficking is a comprehensive approach, and, at the very least, one that is far more wide-ranging and coherent than what exists today. The book also questions the assertion that destination countries, and more specifically Member States of the EU, could, and perhaps should, take more action against trafficking through regional co-operation, particularly in the framework of the EU, rather than as individual Member States. The book will be of interest to a wide range of scholars in EU law, human rights, comparative law, sociology, feminist theory, and politics, as well as policy-makers, practitioners, and NGO activists in various European countries.
Call Number: KNC565 .S335 2003
Publication Date: 2003-10-07
The subject of this volume is the phenomenon commonly known as migrant smuggling - the criminal offence of illegally transporting migrants across international borders. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of migrant smuggling in Australia and the Asia Pacific region in its different aspects and dimensions. It examines the nature characteristics and magnitude, the causes, conditions and consequences of migrant smuggling, and the inadequacies of existing policies and legislation. It compiles, reviews and analyses existing and proposed legislation at national, regional and international levels. It forwards a set of specific proposals that can be woven into a coherent and comprehensve strategy to prevent and combat illegal migration and organised crime in Australia and the Asia Pacific region more effectively in the 21st century.
Modern Slavery : a comparative study of the definition of trafficking in persons
Call Number: K5297 .J36 2015
Publication Date: 2014-10-28
In 'Modern slavery: a comparative study of the definition of trafficking in persons' Dominika Borg Jansson discusses why, despite international anti-trafficking efforts, there are so few trafficking convictions worldwide. In an easily accessible language, the author explains why international legal harmonization in this area has been difficult. Making use of the concept of legal transplants, Jansson compares experiences from Sweden, Poland and Russia offering insights into especially Russian legislation that are not widely available. The problems concerning the implementation of the international definition of trafficking are here divided into country-specific challenges and obstacles attributable to the original source. Jansson also addresses the effectiveness of criminalization of trafficking and offers suggestions on how future trafficking legislation might be framed.
Prohibition of sexual exploitation of children constituting obligation erga omnes
Call Number: KZ7155 .M35 2013
Publication Date: 2013
Whilst the value of human integrity within the laws of individual states and the documents of international human rights is being increasingly consolidated and will become, sooner or later, the primary concern of the law, severe breaches of this value are indeed still widespread. In particular the sexual exploitation of children constitutes one of the most serious questions of national, regional, transnational and international law. According to international records, every fifteen seconds a child is raped in Africa alone. Almost half of the cases heard by the ICTY concern the sexual exploitation of women and children during armed conflict. More or less similar conclusions may be reached regarding the ICTR or the SCSL. In Rwanda alone, 500,000 females were raped. Almost 200,000 females and children have been the victims of cruel forms of sexual violence during the conflicts in Congo. Sexual abuse of children by priests cannot any longer be ignored in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, France, Ireland, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States, although it is ignored in most Islamic countries. The sexual exploitation of children is also widely practised in many other countries. Regrettably, 79 per cent of all world trafficking is for sexual exploitation. The principal subject matter of this book is the legal etymology of sexual exploitation governing minors. The aim is to identify and analyse jus cogens and obligation erga omnes in relation to the sexual exploitation of children and to evaluate the international responsibility of states in relation to the elimination or prevention of the crime, and the prosecution and punishment of offenders.
Report of the Expert Group on Strategies for Combating the Trafficking of Women and Children
Call Number: HQ281 .E97 2003
Publication Date: 2003-06-01
Trafficking of people (mostly women and children) for commercial sexual activities and forced labour is one of the fastest growing areas of international criminal activity - and one that is of huge concern. Trafficking in humans is now considered the third largest source of organised crime after drugs and arms. The Commonwealth Law Ministers at the 1999 meeting in Trinidad and Tobago concluded that the Commonwealth Secretariat should propose strategies to assist countries in developing national and regional initiatives against human trafficking. This title is the result of these proposals.
Representing survivors of human trafficking : a promising practices handbook
Call Number: KF9449 .L55 2014
Publication Date: 2014
This handbook contains lessons learned and promising practice tips in the context of a team-based approach to serving human trafficking survivors. It is based on years of experience representing survivors of human trafficking acquired by the authors, national experts Lynette M. Parker, Cindy Liou, and Ivy Lee. These lessons and tips focus on the experiences of the San Francisco Bay region, but may have applicability to other regions of the United States.
The objective of this publication is to assist advocates for survivors of human trafficking, attorneys and non-attorneys, who are critical to the successful stabilization of those who have been victimized by human trafficking. Written primarily for immigration legal service providers and private attorneys, the comprehensive analysis of how to approach a trafficking case will also be valuable to case managers, health care providers, and law enforcement agencies.
In this second edition, the authors also include advanced topics for practitioners, such as more in-depth practice pointers regarding civil litigation, updates on effectively wielding the visa relief available to survivors, and lessons learned in collaborative work in the years since the first edition.
The Role of Consent in Human Trafficking
Call Number: K5297 .E43 2015
Publication Date: 2014-10-20
Human trafficking is consistently featured on the global political agenda. This book examines the trafficking of adult female victims for sexual exploitation, and specifically the understanding of consent and its influence in the identification and treatment of trafficking victims. Jessica Elliott argues that when applied to situations of human trafficking, migration and sexual exploitation, the notion of consent presents problems which current international laws are unable to address. Establishing the presence of 'coercion' and a lack of consent can be highly problematic, particularly in situations of human trafficking and exploitative prostitution; activities which may be deemed inherently coercive and problematically clandestine. By examining legal definitions of human trafficking in international instruments and their domestic implementation in different countries, the book explores victimhood in the context of exploitative migration, and argues that no clear line can be drawn between those who have been smuggled, trafficked, or 'consensually trafficked' into a situation of exploitation. The book will be great use and interest to students and researchers of migration law, transnational criminal law, and gender studies.
Sex Trafficking : a private law response
Call Number: K5297 .K47 2013
Publication Date: 2013-05-09
Sex Trafficking: A Private Law Approach examines existing and potential causes of action against sex traffickers, in order to outline the argument for fair and effective private law remedies. Combining a theoretical inquiry about the borders of liability in torts and restitution with a political commitment to protecting the interests of victims of sex trafficking, this book offers a comparative doctrinal and socio-legal analysis of the effectiveness of private law remedies. Tsachi Keren-Paz innovatively and convincingly makes the argument that all those directly involved in violating the rights of victims of sex trafficking should compensate them for their losses, and make restitution of the profits made at their expense. Sex Trafficking will be invaluable to both academics and practitioners concerned with prostitution, modern slavery and trafficking, as well as those with interests in private law theory and practice.
Slavery in International Law
Call Number: KZ7155 .A945 2013
Publication Date: 2012-10-12
With the advent, in the twenty-first century, of the trafficking conventions and the criminalisation of enslavement before the International Criminal Court, the need to establish the black-letter law dealing with human exploitation has become acute. Slavery in International Law sets out the applicable law of human exploitation in the various sub-areas of international law, including general international law, human rights law, humanitarian law, labour law and the law of the sea; so as to create an overall understanding of what constitutes, in law, slavery and lesser types of human exploitation including: forced labour and servitudes, such as debt bondage or servile marriage, as set out in the established definition of trafficking in persons.
Call Number: HQ144 .S54 2011
Publication Date: 2011-01-01
They are America's forgotten children, the hundreds of thousands of child prostitutes who walk the Las Vegas Strip, the casinos of Atlantic City, the truck stops on interstates, and the street corners of our cities. Many people wrongly believe sex trafficking involves young women from foreign lands. In reality, the majority of teens caught in the sex trade are American girls--runaways and throwaways who become victims of ruthless pimps.
In Somebody's Daughter: The Hidden Story of America's Prostituted Children and the Battle to Save Them, meet the girls who are fighting for their dignity, the cops who are trying to rescue them, and the community activists battling to protect the nation's most forsaken children. Author Julian Sher takes you behind the scenes to expose one of America's most underreported crimes: A girl from New Jersey gets arrested in Las Vegas and, at great risk to her own life, helps the FBI take down a million-dollar pimping empire. An abused teenager in Texas has the courage to take the stand in a grueling trial that sends her pimp away for 75 years. Survivors of the sex trade in New York, Phoenix, and Minneapolis set up shelters and rescue centers that offer young girls a chance to break free from the streets. "The sex trade is the new drug trade," says one FBI special agent, and Somebody's Daughter is a call to action, shining a light on America's dirty little secret.
This Is Our Story
Call Number: PS3601.D4668 T49 2013
Publication Date: 2013-05-20
This is Our Story follows the lives of Rosa and Mila, two young women from different countries who become victims of human trafficking when duped into domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation in the American Southeast. Their experiences with the underbelly of globalization here in our own backyard, and the legal battles they wage against their traffickers with their immigration attorney, Lily, are told in their own voices, and hers, in vivid and compelling detail.
Trafficking in Human Beings
Call Number: K3240 .S322 2008
Publication Date: 2008-09-15
In recent decades the international community has focused its attention on trafficking in persons, which is surely one of the most worrying phenomena of the 21st century. In Part I, this book examines trafficking in persons in the light of the recent definition of the phenomenon given by the UN Trafficking Protocol, and various other international legal instruments including treaties and 'soft law'. It analyses trafficking causes and consequences, and the most common forms of exploitation related to it. Part II reviews the most important international conventions against slavery and the slave trade, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. It also analyses the most important policy documents setting the basic standards of protection for trafficked victims - namely the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights' Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking - and comments on the extension of the jus cogens principle of international law that prohibits slavery, to argue that trafficking in persons ought rightly to be considered a part of it. Part III deals with the Council of Europe and the European Union, and their fight against trafficking in people, arguing that the focus has been placed mistakenly on the prosecution of traffickers rather than on the protection of trafficked victims. The book concludes with a recommendation to shift towards a more balanced approach to the phenomenon, and the overriding need to conduct further research on specific issues related to the spread of trafficking and the exploitation of its victims.
Trafficking in Human Beings : a comparative study of the international legal documents
Call Number: K5297 .P47 2014
Publication Date: 2014-10-17
Trafficking in human beings has become one of the most serious problems of the international community. Combating this phenomenon in an effective manner requires a comprehensive international approach of all countries. Being aware of this, several international organizations have launched a number of documents to fight against this phenomenon. The most representative ones are the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, which supplements the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000), the Council of Europe's Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (2005), and the EU Directive 2011/36/EU on combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims. This book provides a comparative analysis of these legal documents and suggests a number of proposals in order to improve the international and national policies to combat this kind of criminality.
Trafficking in Persons : prosecution from a European perspective
Call Number: K3275 .R54 2003
Publication Date: 2003-11-07
The crime of trafficking in persons is being increasingly committed in an international context and many of the problems in prosecuting this crime are aggravated by the fact that more than one state is involved. National criminal laws are not sufficient to prosecute and to combat it adequately. As a transnational crime, solutions for an effective prosecution should be sought beyond national borders. This publication will provide an initial impetus for an approach at the EU level to prosecute trafficking in persons more effectively, based on the concept of regional jurisdiction. Recently developed instruments and initiatives within the EU, such as the European Arrest Warrant, Eurojust and a European Public Prosecutor, are also covered in this book. The final conclusion that can be drawn is that, for the moment, a dual track should be followed in order to prosecute the trafficking in persons more effectively.
Trafficking in Slavery's Wake
Call Number: HQ281 .T7179 2012
Publication Date: 2012-09-21
Women and children have been bartered, pawned, bought, and sold within and beyond Africa for longer than records have existed. This important collection examines the ways trafficking in women and children has changed from the aftermath of the "end of slavery" in Africa from the late nineteenth century to the present. The formal abolition of the slave trade and slavery did not end the demand for servile women and children. Contemporary forms of human trafficking are deeply interwoven with their historical precursors, and scholars and activists need to be informed about the long history of trafficking in order to better assess and confront its contemporary forms. This book brings together the perspectives of leading scholars, activists, and other experts, creating a conversation that is essential for understanding the complexity of human trafficking in Africa. Human trafficking is rapidly emerging as a core human rights issue for the twenty-first century. Trafficking in Slavery's Wake is excellent reading for the researching, combating, and prosecuting of trafficking in women and children.
Trafficking of Children for Sexual Exploitation
Call Number: K639 .S25 2013
Publication Date: 2013-08-15
A majority of the existing literature on human trafficking is based on the Trafficking Protocol (2000), and provides limited historical analysis of the preceding law on the subject. This book comprehensively analyses the origin and drafting history of the five treaties on human trafficking that preceded the 2000 treaty. The author, through such an analysis, details the development of public international law in relation to the trafficking of children for sexual exploitation of prostitution from 1864 to 1950. Highlighting a misconception in the existing literature that provides an erroneous understanding of the status of children under one of the treaties in this period, the book seeks to correct this misconception in the literature.
Trafficking of Human Beings from a Human Rights Perspective
Call Number: K3268 .O26 2006
Publication Date: 2006-08-30
It has been widely accepted that trafficking of human beings is a human rights issue. However, it has been difficult to address the human rights aspects of the phenomenon in practice, because a comprehensive analysis of applicable human rights norms and principles has not been fully developed, and therefore the nature of obligations imposed upon States is not entirely clear. The purpose of this book, then, is to establish a human rights framework to promote better understanding of the multi-faceted problems inherent in trafficking of human beings, articulate obligations imposed upon States, and facilitate a holistic approach. The book also contains chapters on case studies at the national, regional, and international levels, thereby combining the theory and practice.
Transnational Crime and Human Rights
Call Number: KNC982.H86 K58 2012
Publication Date: 2012-04-26
Despite the international community's attempts to offer a coordinated response to the issue of human trafficking " in the twenty first century, there are indications that the trafficking is actually on the increase, and is a growing part of the global economy. This book offers an evaluation of responses to the transnational crime of human trafficking and governance of the issue through a case study of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) which comprises Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. It analyses the international and national legal and policy frameworks and the role of governments, international and national non-governmental institutions, and regional processes, in responding to trafficking issues in the GMS. The book is based on the findings of a three year study conducted in the region, involving interviews with more than sixty individuals from relevant organizations and agencies, and examines the social, political and historical factors, including gender and age, labour exploitation and migration which are background to human trafficking issues in the GMS. The book does not just consider sex trafficking but also looks at labour trafficking and other forms of trafficking such as forced marriages and false adoptions. The advantages and limits of the new international framework for tackling human trafficking are explored from the perspective of the region's experience with international and national multi-lateral programmes, illustrating how the new international framework for tackling human trafficking has translated into practice. The book considers issues about competing mandates, and gaps in strategies for protection and concludes with a discussion of broader lessons to be learned from the GMS situation and suggestions for future governance strategies in the fight against trafficking.